Sydney has landed seventh on a list of the world's most congested cities, compiled by satellite navigation company TomTom.
The “2012 Congestion Index” compared congestion levels between 2012 and 2011 in 161 cities across the western world.
Travel times were measured via GPS during non-congested periods, compared to travel times during peak hours. Local roads, major arterial routes and highways were all considered.
The difference is expressed as a percentage increase in travel time, which TomTom claims as the most accurate way of measuring congestion levels.
"Our Annual Congestion Index provides accurate insight into the world's most congested cities," TomTom's Ralf-Peter Schäfer said.
"This detailed knowledge of the entire road network helps businesses and governments to make more informed decisions about how best to tackle and avoid congestion."
Moscow was declared the western world’s most congested city, with a score of 66 percent. Istanbul (55 percent) and Warsaw (42 percent) rounded out the top three.
On the other hand, Stuttgart, Paris and Rome were considered less congested than Sydney despite all four sharing the same score of 33 percent. Los Angeles in sixth place also scored 33 percent.
In Australia and New Zealand, Perth takes second place with a score of 30 percent followed by Auckland on 28 percent. Canberra is the least congested city with a score of just 18 percent.
1. Sydney, Australia 33%
2. Perth, Australia 30%
3. Auckland, New Zealand 28%
4. Melbourne, Australia 28%
5. Christchurch, New Zealand 28%
6. Adelaide, Australia 28%
7. Brisbane, Australia 25%
8. Wellington, New Zealand 24%
9. Canberra, Australia 18%
Global ('Western World' Specifically)
1. Moscow 66%
2. Istanbul 55%
3. Warsaw 42%
4. Marseille 40%
5. Palermo 39%
6. Los Angeles 33%
7. Sydney 33%
8. Stuttgart 33%
9. Paris 33%
10. Rome 33%